Step - HELP



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Soldered joints and checking wires

A clean and proper assembling and soldering of the Kopter is very important. Only in that way a function without failures can be guaranteed.
The cables should not be stripped too far, solder-pads should be used completely and through hole joints should be soldered on both sides.

Here are some examples of how it is wrong and right:

Everything OK? Then it goes back here to Step 1: fr/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step1#Step1-1

Check power distributor for short circuits

If you equip a power distribution board with BL-Ctrl's by yourself you should check afterwards for short circuits.
Here you can use either way a multimeter or a continuity tester.

For that reason that the distributor is a parallel circuit it's enough you measure at one BL-Ctrl.

At this specific points of the BL-Ctrl you should measure:

Example view: Measuring points BL-Ctrl in the distributor:

While measuring between this points you should not get any shorts (0 Ohm):

  • + and -

  • C and D

  • + and C

  • + and D

  • - and C

  • - and D

<!> ATTENTION: If you measure with a continuity tester (or the diode tester on the multimeter) between "+" and "-" it will beep for a short moment.
This is not a short circuit. The short "beeping" is caused throughout the Elkos.

If there is a short circuit the entire distribution board need to be checked or if necessary completely disassembled.

Everything OK? Then it goes back here to Step 1: fr/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step1#Step1-1

I2C error

If you get an I2C Error displayed in the virtual display mostly you have soldering defects/short circuits at the I2C Bus (C/D) or a defect on a BL-Ctrl.
An I2C error is also indicated if the Kopter is powered only by the MK-USB with closed jumper. Here the power supply for the BL-Ctrl is missing.

If you have an error like that you shoud go ahead systematically.
All BL-Ctrl's in the distributor are connected in parallel circuits. Has a BL-Ctrl now a soldering defect, a short circuit or is defect by itself this effects the whole I2C Bus (distributor).

To figure out where the I2C Error comes from you need to partially disassemble the distributor and remove parts of them.
In the first step you should disconnect from all BL-Ctrl's the I2C connection to the distributor. Here you need to solder out the headers on C and D of each BL-Ctrl.
The easiest way is to use desoldering braid. A desoldering sucker shouldn't be used because it can damgage the pads/traces.

<!> To avoid damaging the components throughout solder bridges or other failures you should use a regulated power supply (12V/500mAh).

Step 1:

  • To the distributor (it doesn't matter which one) the BL-Ctrl are soldered on following spots to the I2C Bus:

    Example View:
    BL-Ctrl1.2 + Distributor with I2C-Bridges in the distributor

    Example View:
    BL-Ctrl2.0 + XL-Distributor

Step 2:

  • The connection of the I2C Bus to the distributor is now completely separated from all BL-Ctrl's:

    Example View:
    The solder bridges are removed

    Example View:
    The solder bridges are removed

(At the XL-Distributor a thin piece of cardboard was placed between the contacts to protect it against short circuits)

Step 3:

  • Now you need to measure again with a multimeter between the contacts (Like described under "Check power distributor for short circuits").
    If there is no short circuit you can connect the distributor back to the FlightCtrl.
    For that you can take the FlightCtrl from the Kopter.

Step 4:

  • The distributor with the connected FlightCtrl can now be hooked up to the KopterTool and powered.
    Is everything OK you should see in the virtual display "Missing BL-Ctrl:1!!"

    <!> If there is still an "I2C error" displayed there is certainly a connection from "C" or "D" to GND (-) or PLUS (+).
    If you have a distributor with I2C-Bus solder bridges on the distributor you need to remove them and clean the contacts with desoldering braid from solder:

    Example View:
    The solder bridges are removed

Step 5:

  • If instead of an "I2C error" a "Missing BL-Ctrl:1!!" is displayed the I2C-Bus from the first BL-Ctrl can be soldered back nicely. (all others stay open!).

Step 6:

  • Connect the distributor back to the FlightCtrl. After the volktage is supplied to the distributor you should see in the virtual display: "Missing BL-Ctrl:2!!".

    If you click under the virtual display on the arrow right or left you will be in the window BL-Ctrl found. The detected BL-Ctrl No. 1 should be displayed:

Step 7:

  • Now the I2C-Bus from the second BL-Ctrl can be soldered back nicely (all others stay open!).

Step 8:

  • Connect the distributor again to the FlightCtrl and supply power. In the virtual display "Missing BL-Ctrl:3!!" should be displayed.

    In the window BL-Ctrl found both BL-Ctrl's No. 1+2 should be displayed:

Step 9:

  • Now the I2C-Bus from the third BL-Ctrl can be soldered back nicely (all others stay open!). ....and so on...
    The next step is always like the previous - connect distributor, check, solder next BL-Ctrl to the I2C, connect distributor again, check, ... etc.

If you had just a soldering defect all BL-Ctrl's should be detected now due to clean new soldering. Also, no I2C Error should be displayed.

If you get, after re-soldering a BL-Ctrl, again an I2C Error the last connected BL-Ctrl will be defective.
This one should be taken out of the distributer, been changed or repaired.

Everything OK? Then it goes back here to Step 5: fr/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step5#Step5

Set up transmitter

Before you can use the transmitter and the appropriate receiver on the MikroKopter you should note the following:

  • 35MHz/40MHz Transmitter/Receiver

    • Transmitter and receiver should be equipped with the appropriate crystal (same channel).
    • The receiver need to give a PPM Sum-signal.

  • 2.4GHz Transmitter/Receiver

    • Transmitter and receiver have to be "paired" to each other.
    • The receiver need to give a PPM Sum-signal or (if possible) switched to it.

A transmitter you can use in 4 modes. The assignment of the functions Throttle, Yaw, Nick and Roll are assigned differently to the sticks.

Here now the assignment of the sticks for the 4 different modes:

Mode 1




(!) For the MikroKopter is Mode 2 the perfect mode.

On the MikroKopter channels for specific functions are already preset.

The first 4 channels are assigned for the control.
The remaining channels can be set up on the transmitter as follows:

  • Channel 1 -> Throttle (Function on stick)

    • Stick up - Kopter lifts off/increases
    • Stick down - Kopter decreases
    • Stick middle - Kopter holds the height

  • Channel 2 -> Roll (Function on stick)

    • Stick to the left - Kopter flies to the left
    • Stick to the right - Kopter flies to the right

  • Channel 3 -> Nick (Function on stick)

    • Stick up - Kopter flies forward
    • Stick down - Kopter flies backward

  • Channel 4 -> Yaw (Function on stick)

    • Stick to the left - Kopter rotates anticlockwise
    • Stick to the right - Kopter rotates clockwise

  • Channel 5 -> Height switch (two-way switch * ON/OFF)

    • Switch OFF - Kopter holds the height manually
    • Switch ON - Kopter holds automatically the height while stick is in middle-position

  • Channel 6 -> GPS (three-way switch * OFF/PH/CH)

    • Switch OFF - Kopter without GPS function
    • Switch middle position - Kopter holds position automatically
    • Switch ON - Kopter flies back to the start point

  • Channel 7 -> Camera tilt (rotary potentiometer)

    • With a rotary potentiometer on the transmitter the camera mount is infinitely adjustable for the tilt.

  • Channel 8 -> CareFree (two-way switch * ON/OFF)

    • Switch OFF - Front of the Kopter (red outrigger) is ahead
    • Switch ON - Keeps the last direction for the control; independently in which direction shows the front of the kopter (red outrigger)
      • More specific describtion of the function: CareFree

  • Channel 9 -> not assigned

  • Channel 10 -> Lighting (two-way switch * ON/OFF)

    • In conjunction with an ExtensionPCB you can switch i.e. the lighting ON/OFF.

  • Channel 11 -> Camera "Roll" (rotary potentiometer)

    • With a rotary potentiometer on the transmitter you can infinitely adjust the Roll direction of the camrea mount.

  • Channel 12 -> Camera trigger (button)

    • With the ShutterCable you can trigger the connected camera.

How the channels, like a switch/button/poti, are assigned to the transmitter is described in the instructions of the appropriate trensmitter.

For the transmitter Graupner MX-20 HoTT is the set up described on the HoTT-Wikipage.
In addition you can download there the ready channel set-up for this transmitter. Wikilink: HoTT

Everything OK? Then it goes back here to Step 1: en/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step1#Step1-2

Kopter beeps continuously after switching ON

There are a bunch of possibilities why the Kopter still "beeps" after switching ON and initializing.

Possibility 1

The Kopter "beeps" continuously 1x short and 3x long ....

That is the message for the Loss of receiving signal.
On the FlightCtrl the red LED is ON. This can have i.e. following reasons:

  • There is no receiver connected or hooked up wrong to the FlightCtrl. (Connection opportunities: Link)

  • The transmitter is switched OFF.

  • The transmitter is not connected with the receiver.

  • The receiver is not switched to PPM Sum-signal. (i.e. necessary for the HoTT receiver: Link)

  • The wrong receiver has been chosen in the KopterTool. (This can be set over the EasySetup: Link

Possibility 2

The Kopter "beeps" continuously short.

This indicates a Battery Warning.
On the FlightCtrl the red LED is OFF. This can have several reasons:

  • The connected Lipo is not charged and should be charged immediatly. (Infos about Lipos you can find here: Link)

  • The connected power supply is set wrong. (Using 12-14V it shouldn't be in that way)

Possibility 3

The Kopter "beeps" continuously 1x per second, short.

This indicates a GPS-message. That you will hear only with the assembled GPS-System (NaviCtrl with compass and MKGPS).

This "beeping" is caused by following reasons:
In the software of the FlightCtrl channel 6 is already set for the GPS. Here you can choose over a 3-way switch at your transmitter between the functions "Free - PositionHold - ComingHome".
As long as the MKGPS has no Satfix (the LED on the MKGPS is not flashing) and in addition channel 6 is activated the buzzer beeps in intervals of a second.

If the transmitter has been set already, means the switches are assigned to the right channels, the 3-way switch should be set on "Free". After that the buzzer should be silent.
Are the channels not set at your transmitter, channel 6 can be assigned to a different switch. Here you need to check on each switch until the buzzer is silent.

Everything OK? Then it goes back to 4: fr/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step4#Step4-1

BL-Ctrl - the red LED is flashing

If on a BL-Ctrl the red LED is flashing, or both LED's are OFF or only on one BL-Ctrl the green and red LED is ON then you can determine a failure.

Possibility 1: Both LEDs are not lighting

  • There is no voltage at the controls.
    • Controller not connected; Wires are not soldered correctly; Controller are not soldered correctly into the distributor.
  • Atmega has a defect.
    • Incorrect polarity at the controller; Short circuits throughout solder bridges on the controller; Atmega has been wrong programmed.
  • Controller not or wrong programmed.
    • That can be happen with self-assembled BL-Ctrl's or while trying to download new software into the controller.

Possibility 2: Both LEDs are lighting permanently

As you can read in "Step 4" with a not correct set up mixer all BL-Ctrl's from address "5" up are lighting. After choosing the right mixer the red LEDs are OFF.
If still one of the BL-Ctrl's (or all BL-Ctrl's) are lighting green and red that indicates an error.

  • The BL-Ctrl is not connected to the FlightCtrl; I2C Bus not (or not correct) connected to the FlightCtrl or to the distributor.

Possibility 3: Red LED is OFF but the green one shows pulses

  • Therefore the controller is OK and connected right but there is no engine connected.

Possibility 4: Red LED flashes in intervals

The BL-Ctrl is controlling itself for errors while starting. If an error occurs the red LED is blinking after the start.
With the flashing sequence you can figure out what is defect. However, the controller must be checked, replaced or repaired.

The flashing indicates:

  • 1 x : Phase A defect
  • 2 x : Phase B defect
  • 3 x : Phase C defect

There can be also different flashing sequences. A detailed and exact error message will be displayed in the Terminal Window of the KopterTool.
For that reason the BL-Ctrl must be connected directly to the MK-USB. Over the FlightCtrl the failures of the BL-Ctrl will be NOT displayed.

Here you can make i.e. your own connection cable:

{i} The top bar contains the odd numbers, the bottom bar the even numbers.

Connected will be the BL-Ctrl in that way:
(If only the BL-Ctrl will be connected to the MK-USB you just need to close the jumper on the MK-USB to supply power.
Is the BL-Ctrl still in the distributor or directly connected with wires to the power supply of the Kopter, you can use the power supply of the Kopter.)

The error messages are as follows:

  • 1 => Short circuit Phase A ( against B ) -> Controller not ready

  • 2 => Short circuit Phase B ( against A ) -> Controller not ready

  • 3 => Short circuit Phase C ( against B ) -> Controller not ready

  • 4 => Mosfet NA- not always switching off

  • 5 => Mosfet NB- not always switching off

  • 6 => Mosfet NC- not always switching off

  • 7 => Short circuit Phase C ( against A ) -> Controller not ready

  • A => NA+ not switching on

  • B => NB+ not switching on

  • C => NC+ not switching on

  • a => NA- not switching on

  • b => NB- not switching on

  • c => NC- not switching on

More support to additional error messages and to test the controllers you can find here: BL-Ctrl Fehlerbeseitigung

Everything OK? Then it goes back here to Step 4: fr/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step4#Step4-2

Info window appears: "FlightCtrl is not compatible"

If after a "click" on this window appears ...

... is the software version on the FlightCtrl/NaviCtrl NOT compatible with the version of the used KopterTool.
This can either be an older software version of the FlightCtrl or the NaviCtrl. The same error you will get if using an older version of the KopterTool.

The used software versions should have the same ending numbers.
Using the KopterTool version V1.76 the FlightCtrl should have version 0.86 and the NaviCtrl the version 0.26.

Has in example the FlightCtrl the version 0.84 is that one NOT compatible with the KopterTool version V1.76 and the NaviCtrl with version 0.26.
Here you need to download into the FlightCtrl the appropriate software.

Checking Software versions

In the first step you can see which software is installed.

The version of the KopterTool will be displayed on the upper side to the left:
(Example: KopterTool Version 1.76b)

In the virtual display of the KopterTool you can check on the versions of the FlightCtrl and the NaviCtrl.

One "click" on the button shows you the information of the FlightCtrl:
(Example: FlightCtrl2.1 Version 0.86d)

One "click" on the botton shows you the information of the NaviCtrl:
(Example: NaviCtrl2.0 Version 0.26f)

Download software

With the KopterTool you can download easily and quick the actual software for the MikroKopter, the modules and also for the actual KopterTool.

How this works is described here: SoftwareDownload

Install software

If you have successfully downloaded the software you can install and update it into the appropriate module.

How this works is described here: SoftwareUpdate

Everythin OK? Then it goes back here to Step 6: fr/Erstinbetriebnahme/Step6#Step6